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الاستاذة أمال
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Registration date : 2012-01-28

Some useful definitions

on 2012-03-01, 23:15

Some useful definitions


1. Approach:
A language learning approach is an integrated set of theoretical and practical beliefs. It involves principles which reflect the nature of language itself and the nature of learning.
*An approach refers to the WHY

2. Method:
A language learning method is an overall plan for presenting language materials, based on the selected approach. It involves the design of the course, which in turn consists of learning objectives…
*A method refers to the HOW

3. A technique:
A language learning technique is an explicit procedure used to accomplish a particular learning objective or set of objectives.

Some Approaches
1. Humanistic Approach:
• It emphases on the affective side, which provides a safe environment that facilitates the achievement of the full potential of students.
• Learning more about oneself is a motivating factor in learning.

2. The Structural Approach: Audiolingualism
It is a linguistic, or structure-based, approach to language teaching.
It emphases on the key items of phonology, morphology, and syntax according to their order of presentation.
The general focus being on students gaining accuracy before striving for fluency.

3. Communicative Approach (or Communicative Language Teaching – CLT)
• The focus is on the use of the language for a given context.
• Authentic materials are used and communication among students is encouraged.
• The primary purpose is communicative rather linguistic competence

4. Competency-Based Approach:
• The focus is on measurable and useable knowledge, skills and abilities.
• The language in this approach is not an end in itself, but rather a vehicle that prepares students for their future.
Some Methods

1. Grammar-Translation Method:
• Based on translation of the target language into the native one.
• Vocabulary and Grammar are emphasized: memorization of Grammar rules and native-language equivalents to the target language vocabulary.
• Class work is highly structured, with the teacher controlling all activities

2. The Direct Method:
• Allows students to perceive meaning directly throught the target language because no translation is allowed.
• Uses visual aids , realia and mimes to clarify meaning of vocabulary …..
• Uses the target language for communication as if in real situations…

3. The audio-Lingual Method:
• Based on behaviourist belief that language learning is the acquisition of a set of correct language habits.
• Vocabulary and structure are presented through dialogues learned through imitation and repetition.
• Interaction is based on chain drills or taking roles in dialogues.
• Teacher directs, controls, provides a model, reinforces and corrects.

4. The Silent Way : (Gattegno’s method)
• Teacher’s intervention is limited to what students need to promote learning.
• Teacher’s silence helps foster self-reliance, self correction as well as taking initiatives.
• The teacher is active in setting situations whereas the students do most of the talking and interacting.

5. Suggestopedia ( Losanov’s method)
• Seeks to eliminate psychological barrier to learning.
• Based on relaxing atmosphere where soft music is used in the background
• Translation is allowed to clarify dialogues’ meaning.

6. Community Language Learning ( Curren’s method )
• Students are considered as ‘persons’ with intellect, feelings, instincts and desires.
• Teachers should understand students’ fears and help them feel secure to develop positive energy for learning.
• Students choose what they want to learn and teachers design lessons accordingly.

please discuss........
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